America's Hidden History | Muhlenbergs | TBN

America's Hidden History | Muhlenbergs

Watch America's Hidden History | Muhlenbergs
October 31, 2019
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America's Hidden History

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America's Hidden History | Muhlenbergs

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  • (dramatic music)
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  • - [Narrator] Modern historians have revised, re-written,
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  • and even deleted entire chapters of American history.
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  • So what are we missing?
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  • What happened to the history that didn't make the books?
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  • Join Historian David Barton, Tim Barton,
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  • and special guests as they uncover the facts
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  • some historians don't want you to know.
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  • This is America's Hidden History.
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  • (intense music)
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  • - We're in Woodstock, Virginia,
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  • here to tell a story of two brothers,
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  • John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg
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  • and Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg.
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  • Now, we're standing by the statue
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  • of John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg,
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  • and just looking at the statue,
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  • looks like maybe he's wearing a military uniform.
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  • Well, he was a military officer in the American Revolution.
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  • However, he was much more than just
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  • an officer in the revolution,
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  • he was actually also a minister as was his brother
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  • but that's only kind of the middle of the story.
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  • - They come from a family of Lutherans,
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  • in fact, their father's considered to be the founder
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  • of the Lutheran Church in America.
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  • And so the boys were raised as Lutherans,
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  • and most of the Lutherans in America at that time
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  • were German-speaking as was the family.
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  • And so the father says we want to send you
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  • to Germany to get a good education.
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  • Now, Peter actually had had some education
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  • at the University of Pennsylvania,
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  • what they called the College of Philadelphia at the time,
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  • so he's got some education
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  • and then his dad sent him to Germany
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  • and they started getting a German education.
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  • - Yeah, actually the dad sends all three sons,
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  • all three brothers over,
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  • so Frederick, John Peter, and Henry all go overseas,
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  • they're all getting a German education
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  • but John Peter really didn't like education,
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  • he didn't really like school,
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  • he actually drops out of school,
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  • he gets a job working over there
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  • and really didn't like his job very much either, apparently.
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  • He really just wanted to be
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  • in the military was what he wanted
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  • because he left his job and joined the German dragoons.
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  • And what he did was learn to be a soldier
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  • with these German dragoons, he did the drills with them,
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  • and so when he finally leaves Germany,
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  • he comes back to America,
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  • his heart really is still to be a soldier,
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  • although his father's a minister
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  • and he starts working for his father at his father's church.
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  • He does become an ordained Lutheran minister and starts
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  • serving in Pennsylvania as a pastor of a church.
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  • After serving at his father's church,
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  • he's now a pastor and then,
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  • here in Woodstock, Virginia, they need a pastor,
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  • and so they call on John Peter
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  • to come be a pastor here in Woodstock.
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  • - And a lot of Woodstock at the time
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  • was a German-speaking community,
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  • so it makes sense to have a German-speaking pastor
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  • and they were Lutherans here and so he came here
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  • for that congregation, to minister to that congregation
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  • but when you get here, you find out that Virginia
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  • is a state that has a state established religion,
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  • it is the Anglican religion
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  • and therefore in the state of Virginia,
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  • you can't do marriages, you can't do official funerals
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  • and burials, you can't have anything on record
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  • unless you're the Anglican minister doing that,
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  • well, he's a Lutheran minister,
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  • So in 1772, he goes to England and becomes ordained
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  • so he ends up with two congregations.
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  • He's a pastor of a German speaking Lutheran congregation,
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  • but he's also the pastor of an English speaking
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  • Anglican congregation.
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  • - And as pastor of a church he was
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  • a very influential citizen as well.
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  • In those days, pastors were often looked to
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  • as the ones who had the answers,
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  • in fact you had to be fairly well educated to be a pastor.
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  • There's records from early America when to be a doctor,
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  • you went to school for three years
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  • but to be a minister, you might go to school
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  • for seven years, so they were very well educated people.
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  • When their community is looking for someone
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  • to be even a political leader,
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  • John Peter Muhlenburg was the name that came to their mind
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  • and so he goes to Williamsburg
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  • to represent the people here of Shenandoah.
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  • (dramatic music)
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  • (intense music)
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  • - Pastor John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg
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  • is in charge of two churches there in Woodstock.
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  • The community elects him to be a member
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  • of the state legislature and the state legislature
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  • meets here at the state capital in Williamsburg.
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  • So, he comes here for legislative sessions
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  • and that should be a good thing
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  • except he's a patriot and the governor is a loyalist.
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  • And the governor doesn't like what the patriots are doing
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  • so from time to time the governor
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  • just shuts down the legislature, sends them all home.
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  • Well, they're not going home, they've been elected to serve
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  • and so sometimes they meet in Williamsburg,
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  • sometimes they have to find other places to meet.
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  • And as a matter of fact the legislative session
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  • that happened in December 1775 through January of of 1776,
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  • they met in Williamsburg but it wasn't at the capital.
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  • But they're here and at that point in time
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  • there's a lot happening across America.
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  • I mean, here in town, Patrick Henry's had
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  • to confront the governor
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  • because the governor's gone to the magazine
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  • and taken the powder round.
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  • - Yeah, the British have already come
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  • and tried to get the military arms, the powder,
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  • anything that can be used to oppose
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  • what the king was doing in the British
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  • but you can back up to Lexington Green
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  • where the shot heard around the world happened
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  • and that happened in front
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  • of the Reverend Jonas Clarke's church
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  • and so you have already Lexington Green
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  • the same day the British march on Concord
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  • trying to take the military guys from Concord.
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  • - Yeah, that's up in Massachusetts
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  • and even though it's away from here,
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  • they've heard about it down here.
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  • They see stuff going on all over America.
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  • - So, you've already had several conflicts
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  • so there's already a lot of tension that's building here
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  • in America and so as now you're having the governor
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  • opposing what's going on and then they try
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  • to seize the military's supplies here in Williamsburg.
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  • Patrick Henry's going okay, we've had enough,
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  • we're not doing this anymore.
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  • Well, John Peter gets fired up too.
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  • - He does and he decides, his church needs to know
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  • what's happening so at the end of the legislative session,
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  • he goes out, crawls on his horse, rides back to Woodstock
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  • which is about 200 miles from here
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  • which is maybe up to a week in the saddle
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  • but he wants to go back and let his church know
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  • exactly what the situation is,
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  • not only in Virginia but also across America.
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  • (dramatic music)
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  • (intense music)
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  • - So, after John Peter gets on his horse,
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  • rides back to the community of Woodstock,
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  • that's where he's from and he comes back here
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  • to his church, now this is not his original church
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  • but his original church was here.
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  • This is the rebuilt one, so he gets back here
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  • to the community in time to preach a sermon
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  • on January the 21st, 1776.
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  • That day he mounted the pulpit
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  • and colonial churches back then
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  • had an elevated pulpit that was kind of the PA system.
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  • So, he's in the pulpit and like all ministers back then
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  • he's wearing his clerical robes.
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  • So, he's standing there in the pulpit
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  • in front of the congregation, he has his Bible open
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  • and he chooses to preach out of Ecclesiastes 3:1-8
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  • Now that's the passage that says through everything
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  • there's a time and a purpose and a season.
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  • When he got to verse eight, it says there's a time of peace
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  • and there's a time of war.
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  • He closed his Bible, he looked up he said,
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  • brethren, you know what's going on,
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  • you know it's happening here in Virginia,
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  • you've heard about what's happening up in Massachusetts.
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  • He said, this is no longer the time of the peace,
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  • this is now the time of war,
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  • He starts undressing right there in front
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  • of the congregation and when he gets that robe undone,
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  • he jerks it open and underneath he's
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  • wearing the full dress uniform of a colonel
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  • in the Continental Army.
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  • He now dismounts the pulpit and he walked down the isle
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  • of the church preaching as he went.
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  • He said, brethren, we came here to practice our liberties
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  • and if we don't get involved, we won't have
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  • any liberties left to practice.
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  • He says now who's going with me to defend our liberties?
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  • More than 160 men got up from the congregation,
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  • met him at the back door.
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  • By the next day it had swelled to over 300 men.
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  • - Yeah and this wasn't something that maybe was flippant
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  • that this pastor had this emotional moment
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  • and he's charged and we're gonna do something,
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  • he actually received a letter several weeks before
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  • from George Washington where Washington said,
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  • John Peter we really need some help,
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  • would you raise a regiment?
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  • Now, John Peter also had seen what happened in Williamsburg.
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  • He seen what the British had done
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  • so he probably is very passionate,
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  • he's very motivated but he's also responding to
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  • who was the Commander-in-Chief, George Washington,
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  • the leader of the military.
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  • So, John Peter does get involved,
  • 00:08:06.270 --> 00:08:09.000
  • he leads the men from his congregation
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  • from the community and there on there
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  • from the revolution from 1776 when he begins
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  • all the way to 1783 when the peace treaty
  • 00:08:14.210 --> 00:08:17.080
  • is signed in the revolution.
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  • And they go through all kinds of hardship,
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  • they endure all kinds of persecution
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  • and the persecution wasn't just from having
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  • to fight the British, there were actually locals
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  • who did not appreciate what they were doing,
  • 00:08:27.120 --> 00:08:28.270
  • didn't support what they're doing.
  • 00:08:28.270 --> 00:08:30.120
  • In fact, John Peter's brother Fredrick didn't even support
  • 00:08:30.120 --> 00:08:32.210
  • what he was doing.
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  • - Frederick was a pastor in New York City
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  • at the same time John Peter was pastoring here.
  • 00:08:35.210 --> 00:08:38.040
  • And when Frederick in New York heard what happened here
  • 00:08:38.040 --> 00:08:40.260
  • he wrote a scathing letter to his brother, John.
  • 00:08:40.260 --> 00:08:43.140
  • He said John, this is wrong, you're a pastor,
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  • you're not a soldier.
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  • You choose one or the other, you can't do both.
  • 00:08:48.020 --> 00:08:51.010
  • And that starts a series of letters
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  • that go back and forth and back and forth
  • 00:08:52.230 --> 00:08:54.060
  • and so John replies and said wait a minute,
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  • I am a pastor but I can be a soldier too
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  • because I've got duties to God and to my country.
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  • At times it gets pretty testy.
  • 00:09:02.290 --> 00:09:04.140
  • - Yeah, now Frederick actually did say
  • 00:09:04.140 --> 00:09:06.070
  • that he was a patriot.
  • 00:09:06.070 --> 00:09:07.140
  • He said I support the American cause,
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  • I just don't think you should do that from the pulpit.
  • 00:09:08.270 --> 00:09:10.260
  • He says pastors should not be patriotic in that regard.
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  • Pastors need to just preach the word of God,
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  • they shouldn't be getting involved
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  • in what's happening around them.
  • 00:09:17.210 --> 00:09:19.060
  • Well, he felt that way until the following year
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  • when the British get to New York.
  • 00:09:21.020 --> 00:09:23.110
  • Now what the British understood is a lot of times
  • 00:09:23.110 --> 00:09:25.230
  • in these, especially, small communities,
  • 00:09:25.230 --> 00:09:27.140
  • the pastors are the ones stirring up the people's actions.
  • 00:09:27.140 --> 00:09:30.180
  • So, it was not unusual when the British would go to a town,
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  • for the British to actually destroy the church.
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  • Now maybe they desecrated, maybe they burned it
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  • but they would do something to the church
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  • to send a message maybe to the pastor,
  • 00:09:38.200 --> 00:09:40.030
  • maybe to the community that you should not oppose,
  • 00:09:40.030 --> 00:09:42.070
  • the British don't oppose the crown.
  • 00:09:42.070 --> 00:09:43.280
  • Well, when the British are coming to New York,
  • 00:09:43.280 --> 00:09:46.120
  • Fredrick senses there might be some danger.
  • 00:09:46.120 --> 00:09:48.150
  • He sends his wife and kids away,
  • 00:09:48.150 --> 00:09:50.000
  • he says it's better for you not to be here right now
  • 00:09:50.000 --> 00:09:51.180
  • but he stays.
  • 00:09:51.180 --> 00:09:53.020
  • Well, as the British arrives, he senses it's not safe
  • 00:09:53.020 --> 00:09:55.060
  • for me to be here anymore either, so Frederick leaves
  • 00:09:55.060 --> 00:09:57.090
  • but when the British get to New York
  • 00:09:57.090 --> 00:09:59.040
  • there were 19 churches in New York City at the time,
  • 00:09:59.040 --> 00:10:01.040
  • they burned 10 to the ground and the other nine
  • 00:10:01.040 --> 00:10:04.000
  • apparently they destroyed on some level, some capacity.
  • 00:10:04.000 --> 00:10:06.180
  • So, Frederick realizes his church has been destroyed
  • 00:10:06.180 --> 00:10:09.110
  • and at this point he has this epiphany
  • 00:10:09.110 --> 00:10:11.090
  • of maybe my brother was right.
  • 00:10:11.090 --> 00:10:13.070
  • Maybe pastors can be patriots too,
  • 00:10:13.070 --> 00:10:15.110
  • maybe they could take action more than just tell people
  • 00:10:15.110 --> 00:10:18.060
  • that God loves them, maybe they can get involved
  • 00:10:18.060 --> 00:10:20.090
  • in the community and culture around them
  • 00:10:20.090 --> 00:10:22.020
  • and especially against tyranny.
  • 00:10:22.020 --> 00:10:23.250
  • So Frederick does get involved,
  • 00:10:23.250 --> 00:10:25.030
  • it actually becomes a state legislator
  • 00:10:25.030 --> 00:10:26.190
  • and then becomes apart a Continental Congress
  • 00:10:26.190 --> 00:10:28.240
  • and so this is kind of the beginning
  • 00:10:28.240 --> 00:10:30.020
  • of Fredrick's political career.
  • 00:10:30.020 --> 00:10:31.230
  • (dramatic music)
  • 00:10:31.230 --> 00:10:34.160
  • (intense music)
  • 00:10:36.290 --> 00:10:39.190
  • We're at Valley Forge which is where the Americans
  • 00:10:45.150 --> 00:10:47.170
  • spent the very tough winter of 1777 to 1778.
  • 00:10:47.170 --> 00:10:50.270
  • Valley Forge is a very notable winter.
  • 00:10:50.270 --> 00:10:53.130
  • Most history books reference it and talk about it.
  • 00:10:53.130 --> 00:10:55.120
  • You notice that we are standing beside barracks.
  • 00:10:55.120 --> 00:10:57.240
  • This is exactly what they would have looked like
  • 00:10:57.240 --> 00:10:59.270
  • at that time frame, in fact, John Peter Muhlenberg,
  • 00:10:59.270 --> 00:11:02.070
  • his men would have built barracks
  • 00:11:02.070 --> 00:11:03.200
  • just like this during the revolution.
  • 00:11:03.200 --> 00:11:05.240
  • In the winter at Valley Forge was noted
  • 00:11:05.240 --> 00:11:08.210
  • as a very difficult winter, not because the winter
  • 00:11:08.210 --> 00:11:10.290
  • was necessarily colder than normal.
  • 00:11:10.290 --> 00:11:12.170
  • Just because the conditions the men had to go through
  • 00:11:12.170 --> 00:11:15.090
  • were so difficult.
  • 00:11:15.090 --> 00:11:16.160
  • - Yeah when the men arrived here,
  • 00:11:16.160 --> 00:11:17.250
  • there was really nothing here.
  • 00:11:17.250 --> 00:11:19.030
  • There was a little village close by
  • 00:11:19.030 --> 00:11:21.090
  • but the British had gone into Philadelphia.
  • 00:11:21.090 --> 00:11:23.110
  • They intended to capture Philadelphia,
  • 00:11:23.110 --> 00:11:24.260
  • which they did but they hoped to capture Congress as well.
  • 00:11:24.260 --> 00:11:27.040
  • Because in European warfare,
  • 00:11:27.040 --> 00:11:28.240
  • if you can capture the enemy's capital,
  • 00:11:28.240 --> 00:11:30.200
  • then you win the war.
  • 00:11:30.200 --> 00:11:32.050
  • The American Army stops here and Washington stops here
  • 00:11:32.050 --> 00:11:34.240
  • because it's high, it's elevated, you can defend this.
  • 00:11:34.240 --> 00:11:37.030
  • It's within a days march of Philadelphia.
  • 00:11:37.030 --> 00:11:39.050
  • So this is where General Muhlenberg would have been.
  • 00:11:39.050 --> 00:11:41.150
  • These are the Muhlenberg barracks.
  • 00:11:41.150 --> 00:11:42.260
  • This is where his guys would have been.
  • 00:11:42.260 --> 00:11:44.090
  • The Virginia line was here.
  • 00:11:44.090 --> 00:11:45.260
  • But while they were here, things began to change.
  • 00:11:45.260 --> 00:11:48.080
  • Baron Von Steuben came in and he really
  • 00:11:48.080 --> 00:11:50.240
  • helped the Continental Army with discipline.
  • 00:11:50.240 --> 00:11:52.240
  • And he took 100 guys and started drilling them
  • 00:11:52.240 --> 00:11:55.070
  • in European style discipline.
  • 00:11:55.070 --> 00:11:56.280
  • 'Cause we got a bunch of farmers and school teachers
  • 00:11:56.280 --> 00:11:59.010
  • and shopkeepers trying to take on the British.
  • 00:11:59.010 --> 00:12:00.280
  • Shortly after that you
  • 00:12:00.280 --> 00:12:02.120
  • have the young French General Marquis De Lafayette
  • 00:12:02.120 --> 00:12:04.160
  • who arrives and he's a real boost to these guys.
  • 00:12:04.160 --> 00:12:07.030
  • As matter of fact before they left Valley Forge
  • 00:12:07.030 --> 00:12:08.270
  • they got word that France had joined us as an ally.
  • 00:12:08.270 --> 00:12:11.270
  • So, what happened was coming into Valley Forge
  • 00:12:11.270 --> 00:12:15.100
  • they had had a measurable year,
  • 00:12:15.100 --> 00:12:16.230
  • they're losing battles like crazy.
  • 00:12:16.230 --> 00:12:18.170
  • They get into this training that happens here
  • 00:12:18.170 --> 00:12:21.130
  • and when they leave Valley Forge
  • 00:12:21.130 --> 00:12:22.280
  • over the next year suddenly they're almost on equal footing
  • 00:12:22.280 --> 00:12:25.190
  • with the British but they're able to compete
  • 00:12:25.190 --> 00:12:27.160
  • with these professional soldiers at a real different level.
  • 00:12:27.160 --> 00:12:30.060
  • And based on the training that the soldiers received
  • 00:12:30.060 --> 00:12:33.080
  • during the time here at Valley Forge,
  • 00:12:33.080 --> 00:12:35.020
  • the Continental Army goes on to be a formidable force,
  • 00:12:35.020 --> 00:12:38.010
  • battle after battle after battle, they go forward
  • 00:12:38.010 --> 00:12:40.210
  • and General Muhlenberg actually ends up
  • 00:12:40.210 --> 00:12:42.100
  • in the final major battle of the American Revolution,
  • 00:12:42.100 --> 00:12:44.280
  • the Battle of Yorktown.
  • 00:12:44.280 --> 00:12:45.270
  • (dramatic music)
  • 00:12:45.270 --> 00:12:48.200
  • (intense music)
  • 00:12:51.150 --> 00:12:54.050
  • - We're in Yorktown Virginia, where the last major battle
  • 00:13:00.180 --> 00:13:02.180
  • of the American Revolution was fought,
  • 00:13:02.180 --> 00:13:04.040
  • the Battle of Yorktown and this is actually a place
  • 00:13:04.040 --> 00:13:06.090
  • where John Peter Muhlenberg took part in the action.
  • 00:13:06.090 --> 00:13:09.090
  • As Cornwallis recognized that the American,
  • 00:13:09.090 --> 00:13:11.030
  • the French forces were coming down on him,
  • 00:13:11.030 --> 00:13:13.020
  • he said, I don't want them
  • 00:13:13.020 --> 00:13:14.080
  • to get to Yorktown, I'm in trouble.
  • 00:13:14.080 --> 00:13:15.150
  • Let's put small forts around Yorktown
  • 00:13:15.150 --> 00:13:18.030
  • and these small forts can try to hold them off
  • 00:13:18.030 --> 00:13:20.050
  • before they get here and they were known as redoubts.
  • 00:13:20.050 --> 00:13:22.100
  • This is readout number nine, readout number 10
  • 00:13:22.100 --> 00:13:24.120
  • is just over the hill, so we're standing kind of
  • 00:13:24.120 --> 00:13:26.160
  • in the middle of some of these small forts.
  • 00:13:26.160 --> 00:13:28.050
  • You go in through the side they would have spikes
  • 00:13:28.050 --> 00:13:29.220
  • on the edge maybe to stop the advance and charge
  • 00:13:29.220 --> 00:13:31.230
  • of a troop.
  • 00:13:31.230 --> 00:13:33.080
  • And so what the Americans recognize is in order for us
  • 00:13:33.080 --> 00:13:34.250
  • to get close enough to Yorktown,
  • 00:13:34.250 --> 00:13:36.180
  • to really put a siege like we wanna put a siege on Yorktown,
  • 00:13:36.180 --> 00:13:39.110
  • to really try to bottle up and cause Cornwallis,
  • 00:13:39.110 --> 00:13:42.190
  • ultimately to be defeated or surrender,
  • 00:13:42.190 --> 00:13:44.130
  • they said we need to get closer.
  • 00:13:44.130 --> 00:13:45.270
  • These are the ones that are on the far outside edge,
  • 00:13:45.270 --> 00:13:48.010
  • number nine and number 10, 10 is closest to the water
  • 00:13:48.010 --> 00:13:50.210
  • and so they came up with a plan
  • 00:13:50.210 --> 00:13:52.170
  • that they're gonna come at night,
  • 00:13:52.170 --> 00:13:53.230
  • kind of like a Navy SEAL operation,
  • 00:13:53.230 --> 00:13:56.230
  • where they're gonna do this invasion.
  • 00:13:56.230 --> 00:13:58.020
  • And so 400 Americans came
  • 00:13:58.020 --> 00:13:59.230
  • and they went after readout number 10,
  • 00:13:59.230 --> 00:14:01.290
  • 400 French came and they came after readout number nine,
  • 00:14:01.290 --> 00:14:04.020
  • they were able to capture both of those.
  • 00:14:04.020 --> 00:14:05.170
  • Now, John Peter Muhlenberg was part of the American forces
  • 00:14:05.170 --> 00:14:08.180
  • that captured readout number 10 just over the hill,
  • 00:14:08.180 --> 00:14:10.260
  • so he was responsible or partly responsible
  • 00:14:10.260 --> 00:14:13.100
  • with the guys that actually captured and did that
  • 00:14:13.100 --> 00:14:15.220
  • and was on General Lafayette's staff
  • 00:14:15.220 --> 00:14:17.280
  • and so he was assigned a brigade as the Siege of Yorktown
  • 00:14:17.280 --> 00:14:22.110
  • is taking place and this ended up being a pretty long
  • 00:14:22.110 --> 00:14:24.270
  • but significant siege and battle.
  • 00:14:24.270 --> 00:14:26.210
  • - Once they take these redoubts it enabled them
  • 00:14:26.210 --> 00:14:28.280
  • to their cannons up and now they can shell the British
  • 00:14:28.280 --> 00:14:32.070
  • and so they kind of did this little leap frog thing
  • 00:14:32.070 --> 00:14:34.090
  • across the way and really they did a great job
  • 00:14:34.090 --> 00:14:37.150
  • but they had a lot of help winning this?
  • 00:14:37.150 --> 00:14:39.130
  • There's a lot of providential intervention
  • 00:14:39.130 --> 00:14:41.080
  • that came into this.
  • 00:14:41.080 --> 00:14:42.220
  • - Yeah, so it was interesting is Cornwallis recognizing
  • 00:14:42.220 --> 00:14:44.080
  • that he's getting bottled up, recognizes the French
  • 00:14:44.080 --> 00:14:46.130
  • and the American forces are closing in.
  • 00:14:46.130 --> 00:14:48.090
  • He actually sends a message up to New York
  • 00:14:48.090 --> 00:14:50.170
  • which is where the Royal fleet was,
  • 00:14:50.170 --> 00:14:52.060
  • the British fleet says I need ships down here,
  • 00:14:52.060 --> 00:14:54.160
  • otherwise, if the French get here they're going to
  • 00:14:54.160 --> 00:14:56.170
  • block the harbor then I'm totally surrounded
  • 00:14:56.170 --> 00:14:58.130
  • and as they're looking to move the British fleet down
  • 00:14:58.130 --> 00:15:02.070
  • there's what we would know as providential weather
  • 00:15:02.070 --> 00:15:04.220
  • whereas they're trying to sail south,
  • 00:15:04.220 --> 00:15:07.000
  • the wind is blowing them north,
  • 00:15:07.000 --> 00:15:08.130
  • they're not able to come down in a timely manner.
  • 00:15:08.130 --> 00:15:10.180
  • The French on the other hand are able to come in
  • 00:15:10.180 --> 00:15:12.270
  • and bottle this thing up and actually
  • 00:15:12.270 --> 00:15:14.220
  • as Cornwallis realizes he's getting bottled up
  • 00:15:14.220 --> 00:15:16.180
  • he says okay I need to get off the edge of this peninsula,
  • 00:15:16.180 --> 00:15:18.130
  • let me get across the water to the other side
  • 00:15:18.130 --> 00:15:20.220
  • of this land and then we can kind of escape
  • 00:15:20.220 --> 00:15:22.170
  • and maybe survive and then this huge storm comes in,
  • 00:15:22.170 --> 00:15:25.080
  • huge waves, turning these little ships over.
  • 00:15:25.080 --> 00:15:27.060
  • So, he calls off the evacuation but when he calls it off,
  • 00:15:27.060 --> 00:15:30.130
  • about half his men have now left the fort
  • 00:15:30.130 --> 00:15:33.030
  • and they're on the other side.
  • 00:15:33.030 --> 00:15:34.120
  • So now his forces are cut in half
  • 00:15:34.120 --> 00:15:36.020
  • and it doesn't take very long
  • 00:15:36.020 --> 00:15:37.170
  • before he realizes that we are going to have to surrender.
  • 00:15:37.170 --> 00:15:40.040
  • We're not gonna be able to make it.
  • 00:15:40.040 --> 00:15:41.160
  • So, when they decide to surrender
  • 00:15:41.160 --> 00:15:42.270
  • that they raise the white flag,
  • 00:15:42.270 --> 00:15:44.030
  • he sends out an officer and a drummer boy,
  • 00:15:44.030 --> 00:15:45.200
  • they come meet the Americans
  • 00:15:45.200 --> 00:15:47.000
  • and they're trying to work this out.
  • 00:15:47.000 --> 00:15:48.150
  • Okay, so tomorrow let's have our officers get together
  • 00:15:48.150 --> 00:15:51.040
  • and let's negotiate the terms of surrender.
  • 00:15:51.040 --> 00:15:53.010
  • So, the following day, some officers of each side
  • 00:15:53.010 --> 00:15:55.170
  • met at a house, they began negotiating the terms
  • 00:15:55.170 --> 00:15:57.230
  • of surrender and the following day the surrender
  • 00:15:57.230 --> 00:15:59.190
  • was enacted.
  • 00:15:59.190 --> 00:16:00.200
  • There's a very famous painting
  • 00:16:00.200 --> 00:16:02.050
  • of the surrender of Cornwallis in the U.S. Capitol building
  • 00:16:02.050 --> 00:16:05.080
  • in the Rotunda and in this the depiction
  • 00:16:05.080 --> 00:16:07.230
  • of Cornwallis surrendering, there's a general
  • 00:16:07.230 --> 00:16:10.100
  • off to the side who
  • 00:16:10.100 --> 00:16:11.250
  • is General John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg
  • 00:16:11.250 --> 00:16:14.280
  • but the Battle of Yorktown was the last major battle
  • 00:16:14.280 --> 00:16:17.070
  • and this is where John Peter Muhlenberg
  • 00:16:17.070 --> 00:16:19.000
  • really saw the last action as an officer
  • 00:16:19.000 --> 00:16:21.140
  • of the American forces.
  • 00:16:21.140 --> 00:16:22.120
  • (dramatic music)
  • 00:16:22.120 --> 00:16:25.050
  • (dramatic music)
  • 00:16:34.270 --> 00:16:37.200
  • (intense music)
  • 00:16:44.170 --> 00:16:47.070
  • We're in New York City standing outside of Federal Hall
  • 00:16:51.180 --> 00:16:53.110
  • and Federal Hall becomes very significant
  • 00:16:53.110 --> 00:16:54.260
  • in this story of America really becoming a nation.
  • 00:16:54.260 --> 00:16:56.260
  • So, 1783 is when the peace treaty is finally negotiated.
  • 00:16:56.260 --> 00:16:59.150
  • Now, after 1783, it takes a few years
  • 00:16:59.150 --> 00:17:02.210
  • for the states to figure out what they're gonna do
  • 00:17:02.210 --> 00:17:05.110
  • to really become a nation.
  • 00:17:05.110 --> 00:17:06.260
  • So 1797 is when we realize we need a constitution.
  • 00:17:06.260 --> 00:17:09.080
  • They write the Constitution but one of the provisions
  • 00:17:09.080 --> 00:17:11.270
  • that many states had before it was ratified,
  • 00:17:11.270 --> 00:17:14.090
  • before we move on is they said we need a bill of rights.
  • 00:17:14.090 --> 00:17:17.040
  • And the Bill of Rights
  • 00:17:17.040 --> 00:17:18.120
  • is what limited the federal government,
  • 00:17:18.120 --> 00:17:19.250
  • so there's certain things you can never touch.
  • 00:17:19.250 --> 00:17:21.250
  • You can't touch the freedom of religion
  • 00:17:21.250 --> 00:17:23.140
  • or the freedom of speech or the press
  • 00:17:23.140 --> 00:17:25.130
  • or the right of self defense and our private property,
  • 00:17:25.130 --> 00:17:27.140
  • so it goes through things the government's
  • 00:17:27.140 --> 00:17:29.100
  • not supposed to mess with.
  • 00:17:29.100 --> 00:17:30.170
  • Well, as it goes to states to be ratified,
  • 00:17:30.170 --> 00:17:33.020
  • finally it's ratified, George Washington
  • 00:17:33.020 --> 00:17:34.270
  • is chosen as president
  • 00:17:34.270 --> 00:17:36.090
  • and this is where John Peter Muhlenberg
  • 00:17:36.090 --> 00:17:38.080
  • and Fredrick Augustus Muhlenberg
  • 00:17:38.080 --> 00:17:39.160
  • kind of enter back into the scene.
  • 00:17:39.160 --> 00:17:41.020
  • - This building is actually the first capital
  • 00:17:41.020 --> 00:17:43.070
  • of the United States of America,
  • 00:17:43.070 --> 00:17:44.200
  • long before we went to Washington D.C. we met here.
  • 00:17:44.200 --> 00:17:47.030
  • This is where George Washington was inaugurated.
  • 00:17:47.030 --> 00:17:48.280
  • This is where the first Senate and the first Congress met
  • 00:17:48.280 --> 00:17:51.270
  • and among the members of the very first Congress
  • 00:17:51.270 --> 00:17:54.260
  • who met here were the two Muhlenberg brothers.
  • 00:17:54.260 --> 00:17:57.180
  • Now when they're here you have the President,
  • 00:17:57.180 --> 00:18:00.110
  • so that's established, you have the Senate,
  • 00:18:00.110 --> 00:18:02.110
  • they need a leader, that's going to be the Vice President,
  • 00:18:02.110 --> 00:18:04.210
  • which is John Adams and the House needs it's own leader
  • 00:18:04.210 --> 00:18:08.030
  • and they choose Speaker of the House of Representatives.
  • 00:18:08.030 --> 00:18:10.160
  • And the man they chose was Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg,
  • 00:18:10.160 --> 00:18:13.240
  • first ever Speaker of the House and he was really qualified
  • 00:18:13.240 --> 00:18:16.200
  • for that, he'd been the Speaker of the House
  • 00:18:16.200 --> 00:18:18.010
  • back in Pennsylvania.
  • 00:18:18.010 --> 00:18:19.070
  • He actually led the ratification convention
  • 00:18:19.070 --> 00:18:21.040
  • for Pennsylvania to ratify the Constitution,
  • 00:18:21.040 --> 00:18:23.050
  • so, he's had that experience.
  • 00:18:23.050 --> 00:18:24.270
  • Well, he becomes the first Speaker of the House,
  • 00:18:24.270 --> 00:18:26.230
  • that's a position he actually holds twice
  • 00:18:26.230 --> 00:18:28.200
  • while George Washington is president
  • 00:18:28.200 --> 00:18:30.060
  • and so one of the first tasks they have to do
  • 00:18:30.060 --> 00:18:32.190
  • is okay, we've got the message from that the states,
  • 00:18:32.190 --> 00:18:34.140
  • we've got to have a Bill of Rights, let's get it done.
  • 00:18:34.140 --> 00:18:37.080
  • Well, 200 proposals have come in from the states
  • 00:18:37.080 --> 00:18:39.110
  • saying hey, these are changes we ought to make
  • 00:18:39.110 --> 00:18:41.070
  • in the Constitution.
  • 00:18:41.070 --> 00:18:42.210
  • They take all that, they boil it down to 12 amendments.
  • 00:18:42.210 --> 00:18:45.160
  • These are the 12 proposed amendments that Congress says
  • 00:18:45.160 --> 00:18:48.030
  • we should give to the states,
  • 00:18:48.030 --> 00:18:49.100
  • see if they want to protect these rights.
  • 00:18:49.100 --> 00:18:51.030
  • Of those 12 the states ratified 10 of the 12.
  • 00:18:51.030 --> 00:18:54.110
  • Those 10 amendments is what is now
  • 00:18:54.110 --> 00:18:56.180
  • called the Bill of Rights, that is what guarantees
  • 00:18:56.180 --> 00:18:59.110
  • to us the government is not gonna touch certain
  • 00:18:59.110 --> 00:19:01.190
  • specific personal rights and at the bottom of that document
  • 00:19:01.190 --> 00:19:05.070
  • when they get it all done and it's all ratified
  • 00:19:05.070 --> 00:19:07.010
  • by the states, you'll find
  • 00:19:07.010 --> 00:19:08.170
  • that there's two signatures there.
  • 00:19:08.170 --> 00:19:09.290
  • The head of the Senate signed it, John Adams
  • 00:19:09.290 --> 00:19:11.260
  • and the head of the House also signed it,
  • 00:19:11.260 --> 00:19:14.170
  • Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg.
  • 00:19:14.170 --> 00:19:16.230
  • Now think about that for a second, the Bill of Rights,
  • 00:19:16.230 --> 00:19:18.200
  • the work that was done on the House was led by a pastor,
  • 00:19:18.200 --> 00:19:21.190
  • Frederick Muhlenberg, his signature is on it
  • 00:19:21.190 --> 00:19:24.190
  • and think about just for a second,
  • 00:19:24.190 --> 00:19:26.090
  • what if pastors were the ones leading the nation again.
  • 00:19:26.090 --> 00:19:29.170
  • They're the ones in Congress, well this is how it was.
  • 00:19:29.170 --> 00:19:31.260
  • In fact, of the 90 members of the first Congress,
  • 00:19:31.260 --> 00:19:34.160
  • roughly 10 of them were pastors, which is kind of crazy
  • 00:19:34.160 --> 00:19:37.040
  • to think about and yet very cool,
  • 00:19:37.040 --> 00:19:38.250
  • when you think about the Bill of Rights.
  • 00:19:38.250 --> 00:19:40.030
  • Today a lot of people think about separation
  • 00:19:40.030 --> 00:19:41.190
  • of church and state were the first amendment,
  • 00:19:41.190 --> 00:19:43.110
  • actually, they were protecting the freedom of religion
  • 00:19:43.110 --> 00:19:45.280
  • and the rights of conscious because we wanted to make sure
  • 00:19:45.280 --> 00:19:48.060
  • in America that the government could never tell us
  • 00:19:48.060 --> 00:19:50.160
  • what we could or couldn't do with our religion
  • 00:19:50.160 --> 00:19:52.020
  • and that's between us and God and Frederick Muhlenberg
  • 00:19:52.020 --> 00:19:55.040
  • is one of the guys leading to make sure that happens.
  • 00:19:55.040 --> 00:19:57.110
  • Now remember, when his church was burned down
  • 00:19:57.110 --> 00:19:59.250
  • he decides, I need to get involved,
  • 00:19:59.250 --> 00:20:01.120
  • when his church was destroyed.
  • 00:20:01.120 --> 00:20:02.150
  • And this epiphany comes to him,
  • 00:20:02.150 --> 00:20:03.240
  • I've gotta do something, he is the guy
  • 00:20:03.240 --> 00:20:06.060
  • that helps do the Bill of Rights,
  • 00:20:06.060 --> 00:20:07.220
  • he's the first Congress, he got involved in a big way.
  • 00:20:07.220 --> 00:20:09.290
  • And this is what's cool looking at their story
  • 00:20:09.290 --> 00:20:12.140
  • is these are two brothers who definitely
  • 00:20:12.140 --> 00:20:15.040
  • love God the whole time but they decided to get involved
  • 00:20:15.040 --> 00:20:18.110
  • in different ways, like John Peter and the military.
  • 00:20:18.110 --> 00:20:20.280
  • Frederick finally in political life,
  • 00:20:20.280 --> 00:20:22.270
  • John Peter joins him in political life
  • 00:20:22.270 --> 00:20:24.290
  • and at the end of Washington's presidency, Frederick,
  • 00:20:24.290 --> 00:20:27.150
  • he kind of at that point retires,
  • 00:20:27.150 --> 00:20:29.020
  • resigns back to private life but John Peter
  • 00:20:29.020 --> 00:20:31.170
  • continues serving for just a little bit longer.
  • 00:20:31.170 --> 00:20:34.100
  • (dramatic music)
  • 00:20:34.100 --> 00:20:37.020
  • - Hey, everybody, I'm down here in Wallbuilders collection
  • 00:20:41.250 --> 00:20:43.270
  • again, this time I'm going through the archives
  • 00:20:43.270 --> 00:20:46.120
  • looking for artifacts relating to the Muhlenberg brothers.
  • 00:20:46.120 --> 00:20:49.050
  • We actually have a lot of different ones
  • 00:20:49.050 --> 00:20:51.120
  • and I'll start here.
  • 00:20:51.120 --> 00:20:53.010
  • This is, it's got Frederick Muhlenberg's signature on it
  • 00:20:53.010 --> 00:20:56.190
  • and this is actually a certificate for one of his people
  • 00:20:56.190 --> 00:20:59.260
  • in his church receiving communion.
  • 00:20:59.260 --> 00:21:01.200
  • So, it's got sacrament of a Lord's supper
  • 00:21:01.200 --> 00:21:04.060
  • and it's a certificate, right.
  • 00:21:04.060 --> 00:21:05.200
  • Imagine going to church and you take communion
  • 00:21:05.200 --> 00:21:07.220
  • and then before they leave they stop you like,
  • 00:21:07.220 --> 00:21:09.240
  • oh, you forgot your certificate.
  • 00:21:09.240 --> 00:21:11.080
  • So, really interesting, over here, we got some more
  • 00:21:11.080 --> 00:21:14.250
  • from Frederick, this is while he was in the Legislature.
  • 00:21:14.250 --> 00:21:18.060
  • And right here we've got two kind of parallel documents
  • 00:21:18.060 --> 00:21:21.000
  • for the two brothers.
  • 00:21:21.000 --> 00:21:22.020
  • So we've got one of Peter
  • 00:21:22.020 --> 00:21:24.090
  • and then we've got one of Frederick.
  • 00:21:24.090 --> 00:21:26.080
  • And what these are are pay receipts
  • 00:21:26.080 --> 00:21:27.250
  • for while they were serving in Congress.
  • 00:21:27.250 --> 00:21:30.060
  • And so right here, he's being paid
  • 00:21:30.060 --> 00:21:32.040
  • for his days in attendance and also his mileage.
  • 00:21:32.040 --> 00:21:35.220
  • So, right as he's writing back and forth on his horse,
  • 00:21:35.220 --> 00:21:39.020
  • he's got to stop, fill it up with oats,
  • 00:21:39.020 --> 00:21:40.230
  • so they're gonna compensate for that too.
  • 00:21:40.230 --> 00:21:42.150
  • And over here we've got more artifacts from Peter.
  • 00:21:42.150 --> 00:21:46.240
  • So, I'll pick this one up and I'll pick this one up
  • 00:21:46.240 --> 00:21:49.100
  • and as you're looking you can kind of tell,
  • 00:21:49.100 --> 00:21:51.060
  • they're actually written on two different materials.
  • 00:21:51.060 --> 00:21:53.240
  • So, this one right here is while he was,
  • 00:21:53.240 --> 00:21:55.190
  • port authority, kind of after he is retired
  • 00:21:55.190 --> 00:21:57.180
  • in his later years, winding down,
  • 00:21:57.180 --> 00:21:59.150
  • doing things closer to home but you look,
  • 00:21:59.150 --> 00:22:01.160
  • this is written on the same paper.
  • 00:22:01.160 --> 00:22:02.270
  • But this one is written on what's called vellum.
  • 00:22:02.270 --> 00:22:05.200
  • If you were here I'd hand it to you
  • 00:22:05.200 --> 00:22:07.040
  • but obviously not so you can't, so I'll feel it for you
  • 00:22:07.040 --> 00:22:09.270
  • but as you feel it, it feels like skin.
  • 00:22:09.270 --> 00:22:13.080
  • Well, it's actually animal skin so they would take it,
  • 00:22:13.080 --> 00:22:15.160
  • this is extremely durable, it'll last for hundreds of years.
  • 00:22:15.160 --> 00:22:19.090
  • As it already has lasted a hundred years
  • 00:22:19.090 --> 00:22:20.270
  • and you can see it's basically no worse for wear.
  • 00:22:20.270 --> 00:22:23.000
  • So, they would do their official documents,
  • 00:22:23.000 --> 00:22:24.210
  • their really important documents on vellum,
  • 00:22:24.210 --> 00:22:26.220
  • so this is a land dead, something that's meant to be
  • 00:22:26.220 --> 00:22:28.290
  • passed down through the generations.
  • 00:22:28.290 --> 00:22:30.240
  • So, we've got a bunch of different artifacts
  • 00:22:30.240 --> 00:22:32.110
  • from two extremely important brothers
  • 00:22:32.110 --> 00:22:34.110
  • during the Revolutionary period.
  • 00:22:34.110 --> 00:22:35.220
  • (dramatic music)
  • 00:22:35.220 --> 00:22:38.150
  • (intense music)
  • 00:22:46.120 --> 00:22:49.020
  • - We're here at the statute
  • 00:22:50.160 --> 00:22:52.000
  • of the John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg in Washington D.C.
  • 00:22:52.000 --> 00:22:53.200
  • Now we're in New York City but then the federal capital
  • 00:22:53.200 --> 00:22:56.180
  • moves to Philadelphia where he becomes the Congressman
  • 00:22:56.180 --> 00:22:59.040
  • of Philadelphia and then the federal capital
  • 00:22:59.040 --> 00:23:01.090
  • moves here to Washington D.C. and he's the Congressman
  • 00:23:01.090 --> 00:23:04.070
  • here at Washington D.C.,
  • 00:23:04.070 --> 00:23:05.130
  • he served under President John Adams.
  • 00:23:05.130 --> 00:23:06.290
  • Then when Thomas Jefferson becomes president,
  • 00:23:06.290 --> 00:23:09.030
  • by the way he had a lot to do with the election
  • 00:23:09.030 --> 00:23:11.080
  • of Thomas Jefferson as president.
  • 00:23:11.080 --> 00:23:13.030
  • When Jefferson becomes president,
  • 00:23:13.030 --> 00:23:14.140
  • he appoints John Peter Gabriel back
  • 00:23:14.140 --> 00:23:16.210
  • to a position in Pennsylvania.
  • 00:23:16.210 --> 00:23:19.130
  • He finishes his political career and his life there
  • 00:23:19.130 --> 00:23:22.020
  • but it was a great life, he and his brother both.
  • 00:23:22.020 --> 00:23:24.220
  • And I love what it says on the monument,
  • 00:23:24.220 --> 00:23:26.130
  • he served his church, his country and his state.
  • 00:23:26.130 --> 00:23:31.020
  • And he did, he had a huge impact in all three areas.
  • 00:23:31.020 --> 00:23:34.030
  • - Yeah and the legacy of Frederick and John Peter
  • 00:23:34.030 --> 00:23:36.030
  • certainly is significant in American history.
  • 00:23:36.030 --> 00:23:37.260
  • And talk about hidden heroes, these are guys that say
  • 00:23:37.260 --> 00:23:40.040
  • almost nobody knows and yet every American
  • 00:23:40.040 --> 00:23:42.120
  • should celebrate these guys,
  • 00:23:42.120 --> 00:23:43.210
  • what John Peter did in the military
  • 00:23:43.210 --> 00:23:45.210
  • and then coming out and he and his brother for the Congress
  • 00:23:45.210 --> 00:23:47.020
  • and the Bill of Rights and Frederick
  • 00:23:47.020 --> 00:23:48.180
  • being the Speaker of the House
  • 00:23:48.180 --> 00:23:50.050
  • these are huge names in American history
  • 00:23:50.050 --> 00:23:52.240
  • and yet, today so few people know them
  • 00:23:52.240 --> 00:23:55.070
  • which is why we are doing this
  • 00:23:55.070 --> 00:23:56.260
  • to help more people know some of these hidden heroes
  • 00:23:56.260 --> 00:23:59.160
  • from American's history.
  • 00:23:59.160 --> 00:24:01.080
  • (slow music)
  • 00:24:01.080 --> 00:24:03.210
  • I think apart from George Washington,
  • 00:24:14.210 --> 00:24:15.290
  • my favorite story from early America
  • 00:24:15.290 --> 00:24:20.190
  • has to be the Muhlenberg brothers.
  • 00:24:20.190 --> 00:24:22.120
  • Their relationship, their story,
  • 00:24:22.120 --> 00:24:25.010
  • one of my favorite stories in history.
  • 00:24:25.010 --> 00:24:26.240
  • - When you look at how close they were as a family
  • 00:24:26.240 --> 00:24:29.050
  • and yet the really almost vicious disagreements
  • 00:24:29.050 --> 00:24:32.260
  • they get into with each other.
  • 00:24:32.260 --> 00:24:34.110
  • I was thinking about them in terms of even scriptures,
  • 00:24:34.110 --> 00:24:36.150
  • because to be a good leader,
  • 00:24:36.150 --> 00:24:38.210
  • you've got to be pretty strong willed in a lot ways,
  • 00:24:38.210 --> 00:24:41.010
  • as a Speaker of the House-- - You have to have resolve.
  • 00:24:41.010 --> 00:24:43.050
  • - You've got to have a drive.
  • 00:24:43.050 --> 00:24:45.290
  • And so you've got two type A personalities here
  • 00:24:45.290 --> 00:24:48.150
  • and I kind of look at the Muhlenberg brothers,
  • 00:24:48.150 --> 00:24:50.080
  • like a Paul and Barnabus almost.
  • 00:24:50.080 --> 00:24:52.000
  • There was a lot of friction but in their case,
  • 00:24:52.000 --> 00:24:54.040
  • they really came back to join together
  • 00:24:54.040 --> 00:24:56.230
  • and now you've got the stronger brother, Peter
  • 00:24:56.230 --> 00:24:59.090
  • who had the more stronger opinion at the beginning,
  • 00:24:59.090 --> 00:25:01.170
  • he's actually serving under his brother
  • 00:25:01.170 --> 00:25:03.070
  • who's Speaker of the House and so the ability
  • 00:25:03.070 --> 00:25:06.150
  • to have strong, disagreements and then not get bitter
  • 00:25:06.150 --> 00:25:10.050
  • and hateful over it and not turn your back.
  • 00:25:10.050 --> 00:25:12.080
  • And I think that's a tendency we have today
  • 00:25:12.080 --> 00:25:14.010
  • is if we get challenged in our opinion,
  • 00:25:14.010 --> 00:25:16.140
  • we just pick up our stuff and go home.
  • 00:25:16.140 --> 00:25:18.120
  • I'm not gonna talk to you anymore because you're mean.
  • 00:25:18.120 --> 00:25:20.240
  • And I look at what they worked through back then
  • 00:25:20.240 --> 00:25:23.170
  • and it's the same kind of stuff that really
  • 00:25:23.170 --> 00:25:25.200
  • broke the New Testament and broke the New Testament church.
  • 00:25:25.200 --> 00:25:27.240
  • - Well and recognizing too, that they were both Christians
  • 00:25:27.240 --> 00:25:30.240
  • and this is a significant theological difference.
  • 00:25:30.240 --> 00:25:33.170
  • When Frederick saying you can't be a pastor
  • 00:25:33.170 --> 00:25:36.220
  • and be a soldier, those are incompatible
  • 00:25:36.220 --> 00:25:39.130
  • and Peter's going what are you talking about?
  • 00:25:39.130 --> 00:25:42.060
  • This is as natural as anything in life
  • 00:25:42.060 --> 00:25:45.020
  • and ultimately when Frederick encounters the British
  • 00:25:45.020 --> 00:25:48.130
  • and goes, oh, wow, okay.
  • 00:25:48.130 --> 00:25:49.270
  • - Epiphany time. - Right, I think my brother
  • 00:25:49.270 --> 00:25:52.170
  • might have been right.
  • 00:25:52.170 --> 00:25:53.260
  • At this moment you see that he's catching up
  • 00:25:53.260 --> 00:25:56.210
  • to what his brother was arguing.
  • 00:25:56.210 --> 00:25:58.050
  • Now I don't know if he ever fundamentally changed
  • 00:25:58.050 --> 00:26:00.190
  • to match where his brother was.
  • 00:26:00.190 --> 00:26:03.020
  • So much of what we enjoy in America today
  • 00:26:03.020 --> 00:26:04.290
  • is because of the legacy of these two guys.
  • 00:26:04.290 --> 00:26:06.180
  • I mean, look at the Bill of Rights,
  • 00:26:06.180 --> 00:26:08.080
  • largely the Muhlenberg brothers
  • 00:26:08.080 --> 00:26:09.290
  • are two people you can point to.
  • 00:26:09.290 --> 00:26:11.160
  • And to think for the reason we have the freedom of religion
  • 00:26:11.160 --> 00:26:13.210
  • the freedom of speech, the reason we're able to do so much,
  • 00:26:13.210 --> 00:26:16.150
  • I think these two guys are not appreciated nearly enough
  • 00:26:16.150 --> 00:26:19.070
  • in history but it's why they're two of my favorite people
  • 00:26:19.070 --> 00:26:22.050
  • from early America.
  • 00:26:22.050 --> 00:26:23.080
  • (dramatic music)
  • 00:26:24.200 --> 00:26:27.120
  • - [Narrator] We hope you're enjoying TBN's exclusive series,
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  • America's Hidden History.
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  • Thrilling stories of ordinary and unsung Americans,
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  • God used in extraordinary ways to shape our nation.
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